Factory protection covers three aspects videlicet protection milk chocolate against pests, complaint causing disturbances and weed disturbances. numerous attempts have been made to develop a pest protection system, whether mechanical or physical, chemical, and natural.
Not all disturbances can be overcome by mechanical or physical trouble, nor can chemical approaches. Indeed factory protection using chemical composites raises new problems. That aren’t fluently overcome videlicet environmental pollution. And the emergence of pest and complaint resistance to the chemicals used.
We don’t know for sure when germicides began to be used by people.
what’s certain is that the accoutrements that are classified as germicides in terms of their functions. Were used by primitive humans for the first time videlicet slush and dust.
The purpose of this paper is to find out how the operation of an germicide and. What impact will be caused after the use of the germicide.
This content is useful as an original understanding of the conception of factory. Protection( crossing) which is principally a pest control system( factory pest organisms) by exercising. All technologies that can be used together to reduce. Or maintain pest populations below the limit that causes profitable damage.
Factory protection has a veritably important meaning in determining the success of the thing of cultivating shops. Literally, protection is commodity that’s given to cover commodity or someone. Who isn’t strong or weak against a trouble or disturbance that can damage. Harm or intrude with his normal life process.
Meanwhile shops are shops that are cultivated or planted by humans for certain purposes.
The purpose, piecemeal from consumption is to achieve high volume and good quality. Crop yields or product so as to increase income and weal for those who cultivate them.
therefore, Plant Protection is an trouble to cover shops from pitfalls or disturbances that can damage. Harm, or intrude with their normal life processes. Frompre-planting topost-planting( Djafaruddin, 1996).
Disturbances or pitfalls to shops can be in the form of nuisance bodies or factory. Pest organisms( OPT), rainfall/ climate conditions, soil conditions. Or crimes in the civilization of agrarian crops. The Plant Protection course only discusses agrarian pests. Meanwhile, other factory pests are bandied. In other lectures, including climatology soil wisdom, and agronomy.
Forestallment control and monitoring soothsaying of pests and conditions adding.
the volume and quality of agrarian products, adding the competitiveness of agrarian. Products in the request, adding the income and weal of growers. Perfecting the quality and balance of the terrain.
Is any crop change that can lead to a reduction in the volume and quality of the anticipated yield.
Is any reduction in the volume or quality of the anticipated affair as a result of a disturbance.
Is any reduction in the volume or quality of the anticipated outgrowth. As a result of a disturbance that’s measured economically/ socially.
The relationship between shops and pest shops for pests( pests) is a source of food. Sanctum/ living place and a place to meet mates. While pests for shops. Are nuisance, because pests are suitable to eat shops from the roots to the shoots. Indeed flowers, fruit or seeds. The damage that occurs is generally mechanical. Similar as perforated leaves, broken roots, torn or broken stems and others.
shops, as a source of food, are frequently called hosts. The number of factory species as hosts is known as the hostrange.However, it means that the pest has a wide host range( euro- phagic) and if the host range is small, also the pest has a narrow host range( longhand- phagic), If the pest has numeroushosts.However, also the pest is polyphagous, If the pest has a wide host range conforming of numerous types of shops from numerous lines.
Meanwhile if the host is several types of shops from several rubrics.
also the pest is oligophage and if the host is several types of shops from one rubrics, the pest is monophage.
In the environment of sweats to increase agrarian product, there are still numerous obstacles to be faced. The handicap is the influence of 2 dominant factors, videlicet Abiotic factors and Biotic factors.
rainfall and seasonal downfall vaticination have increased the delicacy and trustability of vaticinations of the indian thunderstorm. Despita these advances, vacuity and access to position specific vaticinations to take proper opinions at the ranch position is veritably limited. Traditionally growers in india have been using a set of pointers that have varied situations of responsibility for downfall vaticination and have evolved sev- eral managing strategies and mechanisms.
The M.S. Swaminathan exploration foundation( MSSRF).
Grounded at chennai, india initiated a design on “ establishing decentralized climate soothsaying system at the vil- lage position ” to produce and enhance planter’s capacity to use locale-specific seasonal downfall and rainfall soothsaying in collaboration with reddyarchatram seed farmers association( RSGA), a growers association at kannivadi in dindigul quarter of tamil nadu state, india.
The msin thing of the design is to produce an access and enhance planter’s capacity to use position specific seasonal climate and rainfall prognostications to ameliorate their livelihoods.
The major objects are to study the seasonal climate variations and chroniclet the planter’s traditional managing strategies andknowledge.the study also aims at evolving a methodology for downscaling with applicable institutional liaison and converting the general data into position-specific, medium term, inter andintra-seosonal climate and rainfall vaticinations.
Probabilistic seasonal climate and rainfall forecats information is restated.
Into applicable planter friendly performances for its practical use in crop operation.Reddyarchatram block is asemi-arid region located in dindigul quarter of Tamil Nadu, India, covering a geographical area of 280 km2. further than 80 of the homes in the quarter depend on husbandry. Important planting seasons arejuny_july and october november for both the irrigated and rainfed crops, in addition to the summer rinsed crop. The mean periodic downfall is845.6 mm. Raifall in the region is characterized by a large variation between seasons.
Though the area benefits both from the northeast thunderstorm( october- december) and the southwest thunderstorm( june- setember), maximum chance(52.5) of downfall is entered during the northeast thunderstorm and nearly25.8 of the total periodic downfall is entered during thunderstorm.
The area receives only5.4 of the total periodic downfall during january and february.
And nearly16.3 during the summer seasons between march and may. The total area under civilization is24.624 ha which includes both dry and irrigated lands. roughly29.600 homes are involved in husbandry and further than 50 of the homes are small and borderline growers.
Sorghum, small millets, grain legumes, cotton and chickpea are the major periodic crops cultivated under rainfed conditions. Cotton, Maize, flower crops, vegetables, gherkins, sugarcane, periodic moringa, paddy, onion, etc. Are the most important periodic crops grown in this region.
The major source of irrigation is underground water through wells followed by small tanks and budgets.
The study was initiated during October 2002 to March 2004in five townlets where vill knowledge Centers( VKCs) arefunctioning.The computer grounded vill knowledge centers with internet connection provides stationary information about the agronomical practices of the different crops cultivated in the region and the dynamic information like price details of the main agrikultural yield from diffrent markeets, vacuity of inouts, growers entitlements,etc.
A setof VKCs are operating in yhe region connected with a hub in the center and the hub is the nodal point, which receives the general information and adds value by converting it to original specificinformation.
The original community manages the VKCs. access is assured to all irrespec tive of estate, class, gander andage.Need grounded content creation is being regularly done on the base of the feed back from the original women and menfarmers.The original vill people have been trained in the operation of ultramodern information and communication technologies including networking.
In each vill traditional knowledge system on rainfall and climate was stedied.
through convetional check using questionnaire, anthropological tools similar as party observation, and participatory experimental tools similar as Venn illustration and Focus Group conversations( FGD). The traditonal rainfall and seasonal downfall predictors were studied among the named sample homes.
throughquestinnaires.Anthropological tools similar as open- concluded interviews were used to study the conceits, myth and sayings that gave through informal disscusion with knowledgeable men and women growers.
parameters outside and minimumtemperature soil temperature at different depths sun hours, wind direction and haste, evaporation rate, relative moisture according to the morals of indian meteorological department in the specified format and communicate the same to NCMRWF twice a week throughelectonicmail.
In turn NCMRWR give rainfall cast twice a week to the mecca center on pall cover.
Rush, temperature, wind direction and wind haste also liaison were established to admit the seasonal downfall cast from TNAU.
The mecca center receives the cast and converts the general information entered from these two institutions into locaction-specific planter friendly language( for illustration if the wind direction is 100, it’s communicated to the particular vill in their original parlance) and disseminates the information to growers and agrarian sloggers through VKC, bulletin boards and original review.